The structural framework of high-rise buildings is done by metal. It is used as an external surface covering element. Steel is the most common element used in structural building materials. It is very strong and can be treated to deliver long-lasting results. As corrosion is the main enemy of steel, alternative materials are used for other purposes.
Alloys used to Prepare Steel/ TMT Bars
Aluminum alloys are light in weight and they offer better corrosion resistance properties.There are many pre-fabricated structures which are used for this purpose. Expensive materials are used for specific purposes. They enhance the beauty of your home in a very efficient way.
How are TMT Bars Manufactured..?
When work hardening and heat-treatment is integrated into a single process, it is called as thermo-mechanical process. If bars are treated in this process, they are called as TMT bars. The applications of TMT bars include rebar steel.
The process is intended to enhance the strength of low-carbon steel in an inexpensive way. The surface layer of the bar will be quenched. In this process, the deformation of crystal structure will take place and intermediate layers will be pressurized. At the same time, quenched layers will be tempered using the heat available from the core.
The outer surface of TMT bars will be very hard and the inner core will be very soft. As part of the manufacturing process, hot rolled steel wires will go through water as well. The weld-ability of the product improves and corrosion resistance will also improve in this process. As outer surface of the metal will be cooled at a much faster pace than the core of the metal, there will be great temperature gradient from the bar axis to the periphery. The residual stress in TMT bars will be lesser than HYSD (High Yield Strength Deformed) Bars. The corrosion resistance is also very high. The ductility of TMT bars is higher than similar strength grade of bars.
Difference Between TMT Bars and Twisted Bars..?
There is difference between twisted bars and TMT bars. Twisted bars refer to cold treated bars and TMT bars refer to hot treated bars. TMT bars will go through three stages of processing. They are quenching, self tempering and atmospheric cooling. As there will not be any twisting during the TMT process, no torsional stress takes place. Hence, there will not be any surface defects in TMT bars. TMT bars have martensite micro structure. Hence, the tensile strength will be higher than twisted bars.
Superior bend properties, better elongation, fire resistance, high fatigue resistance and good weldability & formability are some of the factors which make it an ideal choice in the construction industry. Hence, TMT products are used in the construction of bridges, dams, structures, high-rise buildings, concrete reinforcement and underground platforms.
There are various kinds of bricks in the market. They are used as per the application. Bricks available in the market are categorized under various headings. There are unburnt (sun-dried) bricks and burnt bricks. If the construction is done on temporary basis, you can go for unburnt bricks. If the structure is exposed to heavy rains, it will be damaged.
Different Types of Bricks.?
The brick-mould will be burnt inside the factory and these are very commonly used in the construction. They are classified into four types: first class, second class, third class and fourth class bricks. There are bricks available in various shapes.
These shapes include bullnose brick, channel brick, coping brick, cownose brick, curved sector bricks, hollow bricks, paving bricks, perforated bricks and purpose-made bricks. Bricks used by masonry are also categorized as common burnt clay bricks, sand-lime bricks, engineering bricks, concrete bricks and fly ash clay bricks.
How BRICKS are Manufactured..?
Bricks manufactured at extremely high temperatures are termed as engineering bricks. A very dense and strong brick will be formed so that the strength is very much enhanced and water absorption will be limited. In addition to damp-proof characteristics, there will be excellent load bearing capacity with engineering bricks.
You will get protection from heat and cold by installing highly efficient bricks at home. Natural bricks are made in various colors. It is possible to achieve various textures in a very efficient way. You can take advantage of excellent compression strength offered by bricks. Bricks should have the capability to release as well as absorb moisture in a very efficient way. the humidity as well as temperature should be well-regulated.
Concrete bricks are made from solid concrete. They are placed in facades and fences. There will be great strength enhancement with solid concrete blocks. Solid concrete blocks can be prepared in various colors. The color control is achieved due to the pigmentation at the production floor. You can go for energy-saving and environment-friendly solid concrete blocks. The water absorption will be lowered and high strength will be achieved. There will be better sound insulation, consistency, precision & accuracy associated with solid concrete blocks.
How are Solid Concrete Blocks manufactured..?
Concrete block is made up of Portland cement, blended cement, water and various kinds of aggregates. These units are also referred as concrete masonry units (CMU). They are very inexpensive, durable and lightweight. The installation can be done very easily. because of fireproof, low maintenance and ornamental value of the block, they are used in various construction applications. You can obtain decorative finishing by going for solid concrete blocks.
Sizes of Concrete Solid Blocks – 4” 6 “ 8”
The end of the block might be flat or flanged. The compressible strength and fire resistance offered by the block is based on the block’s configuration. Pumice is the natural aggregate. Other materials are cinders and slag. Some historical uses of concrete block include foundation walls, basement walls, partition walls and exterior walls. Concrete blocks are used as a back-up material or for cavity wall construction. By applying coatings, water penetration through blocks will be prevented. Oil and rubber-based coatings, latex paints and Portland cement paints are used in this process.
You should choose right kind of sand for construction. River sand is procured from river beds. It is fine sand which is different from pit sand. You can find rounded grains which appear in white-grey color.
It is used in construction process. There are many applications of river sand. As the sand will be very clean, it will be white in color. It is a naturally occurring materialwhich is produced from finely divided rocks and mineral particles.
The size of the sand is finer than gravel and it is coarser than silt.
Soil is also called as a textured class of soil. It contains more than 85% of sand-sized particles.
The sand can be used for various purposes.
The composition varies based on rock sources and conditions. Silica is the most common constituent in sand. It is available in the form of quartz.
Calcium carbonate is the second most common type of sand. It is created by various forms of life such as corals and shellfish. You can find this kind of sand in reefs.
Why we use River Sand for Construction..?
The diameter of sand particle will be in the range between 0.0625 mm and 2 mm. The individual particle diameter will be as small as 0.02 mm. you can go for unwashed river sand and washed river sand as per your needs. unwashed river sand will be mined from old river banks.
The sand will be coarser than other kinds of sand. River sand consists of small pebbles of about 2 to 3 mm. the strength and binding qualities are attributed by the presence of small pebbles.
The floor can be topped up very efficiently by adding sand to the cement. After the mortar sets in, you will realize the hardness of the composite. If you go for good quality washed river sand, plastering, building and topping can be done very efficiently. The specialist sand is expensive and it works like a filter as well. if vegetation and organics are screened, it is termed as dune sand. When lime is added to the sand, the quality of sand will improve. high quality finish can be obtained by using premix plaster sand.
Manufactured sand (M SAND) is used as a substitute to river sand. This kind of sand is produced from granite stone. The granite will be crushed and it will be made into cubicle shapes. There will be grounded edges as well. the size of the M-sand is less than 4.75mm.
The cost of construction can be decreased by going for manufactured sand. As there is great growth of construction industry, the demand for natural has increased.
Due to non-availability of natural sand from local area, the invention of manufactured sand took place.
With this invention, the transportation cost has decreased tremendously. The advantage with M-sand is that it is dust-free. You can exercise control on size of M-sand as per the grading of the construction. There are many advantages associated with M-sand.
The well graded sand can be used in required proportion as per your needs. no organic or soluble compound is present in M-sand. Hence, the setting will take place very quickly. it is possible to manage required strength very easily.
Advantages of M Sand over Natural River Sand
Impurities such as clay, silt and dust are eliminated in a very efficient way. The bond between cement paste and aggregate will be very perfect. The durability of concrete is very much enhanced by using M-Sand. By using state-of-the-art technology, manufactured sand is produced from granite. You will obtain the property required by the sand so that high quality construction will take place. The sand is manufactured by following the technology which is similar to the mechanism underwent by natural sand.
How M Sand in Manufactured..?
By using modern machines, high quality sand will be produced. Fine crushing and separation technology is used to produce very high quality product. It is possible to produce sand as per local regulations. The consistency of the product can be maintained across various batches. There will be control on the mix and the strength that is attained with the aggregate.
Fine and coarse particles are separated by air classification technology. Specifications are met and very high quality products are produced by exercising control on the production of manufactured sand.
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